Citation Guides: Works Cited

DOI (Digital Object Identifiers)

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the APA 7th Edition manual.

Information on DOIs can be found in the APA Manual (pp298-300) or, through APA's online description of DOIs and URLs.

If a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is listed on either a print or an electronic source, it should be included in the reference (p. 299).  A DOI is a unique alphanumeric string that is used to identify a certain source (typically journal articles, but also some books).  If an article has a DOI, it can usually be found on the first page of the article, in the database record, or by searching On a book, it may be found on the book record if it was located in a database or, on the work's copyright page.


DOIs should be formatted:

  • As hyperlinks (i.e., beginning with "http://" or "https://")
  • As "live" (clickable) links, using either the default display settings (e.g. blue font, underlined) or plain text that is not underlined
  • Without additional line breaks; it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line

Books (Print & Online)

Book: General

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Book title: Subtitle. Publisher. OR URL, if applicable

Franks, A. (2005). Margaret Sanger's eugenic legacy: The control of female fertility. McFarland & Company.

Entire Book: Electronic Version

Jackson, L. M. (2019). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Entire Book:
Print Version (Three Authors)

Greig, A., Taylor, J., & MacKay, T. (2013). Doing research with children: A practical guide. Sage.

Entry in Online Reference Work

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Internet addiction. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved April 24, 2020, from

Chapter in an Edited Book

Watson, J. (2018). Integrative nursing and caring science: Universals of human caring and healing. In M. J. Kreitzer  & M. Koithan (Eds.), Integrative Nursing (2nd ed., pp. 20-28). Oxford University Press. 


Journal Articles (Print & Online)

Journal: General

Author Surname, First Initial. Second Initial. (Year). Article title: Subtitle. Journal Title, Volume(issue), page range. OR URL, if applicable

Journal Article with DOI

Pettigrew, T. F. (2009). Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology, 40(2), 55-65.

Journal Article without DOI

Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48.

Magazine Article

Zorthian, J. (2017, May 25). Real-life robocops. Time, 189(21).

Newspaper Article

Severson, K., & Martin, A. (2009, March 3). It's organic, but does that mean it's safer? The New York Times.


Website Examples

Basic Website Sims, A. (2018, February 26). The most popular houseplants of spring 2018. Architectural Digest.
Government Publications from a Website

Name of Government Agency. (Year). Title of document: Subtitle (Report No. xxx [if available]). URL of specific document

National Cancer Institute. (2019). Taking time: Support for people with cancer (NIH Publication No. 18-2059). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

Online Reference Work

Personal or Corporate Author. (Publication or last update date; if not know, use n.d.). Title of specific entry. In Name of Book. URL of specific webpage

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Citation. In dictionary. Retrieved May 1, 2020, from


More Information & Examples

You can find more reference examples on the APA Style Website at